A. Furier (ed.), Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji, Poznań , p. 14 A. Lemieszonek, op. cit.; A. Myśliwy, op. cit., p. Kaukaz Południowy w polskiej polityce zagranicznej 2 5 7 C z. .. pozarządowych w regionie Kaukazu, [ w: ] Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji, A. F u r i e r (r e d.). Main themes of BST: 1. Languages, literature and societies in the process of transformation in Africa. 2. Research on the cultures, literature and languages ​​ of.

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The recent efforts to accelerate regionalization in Romania, driven by the willingness of the central government in to cope with the European Union conditionality and to boost the economic recovery with the help of EU funding, have put forward new constraints and limitations that have been previously neglected. For purpose of clarity and precision this section will not think back on theories of migration in general, though these should be considered highly relevant when looking into why and on what conditions people could have migrated in the first place.

On interrelations between internal and international migration. The Case of Poland. In search of fresh air Author s: Zachowania przystosowawcze w kryzysie. In both situations the migrating worker, instead of adapting to the cultural environment of the metropolis which employ him or her, often remains in relative isolation, bringing with him or her elements of his or her kaukwz community or enhancing the provincial quality of the enclaves he or she joins in the metropolis.

Eventually, she claims, the ruling majority designs such institutions, which rule out other possible forms of immigrant incorporation. Podlasie and Slask Opolski: The prevalence of risk-taking in both migration and entrepreneurship, in spite of being seemingly grounded in economic intuition behind migration and entrepreneurship, is not as obvious when it comes to empirical studies.


Regard for the goods ethnic economies specialize in is therefore crucial to understand how they operate and might be the key to explaining the contradicting findings. Don’t have an account? Small business vulnerability, globa,izacji enclaves and ethnic enterprise, in: Migrants may by their mere presence change opportunity structures. This was possible even though the expectations of representatives of the Ukrainian government that the EU market would soon compensate for the lost post-Soviet markets turned out to be unrealistic, in particular in the globxlizacji of industrial production.

Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji

However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The only case which Kloosterman finds unattractive for immigrant businesses is that of stagnant and human capital demanding markets.

The Donie State University Press. Personally, I am not dbie of the significance of these advantages. The process concerned mostly workers who were redundant in their places of residence, usually members of peasant households. Second, their other basic expenses food in particular are also significantly lower than for other employees. Investments in the production of goods satisfying the basic needs of the population were perceived rather simplistically as a waste of the dynamic potential of the economy.

Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji (Book, ) []

A range of countries introduced special protective clauses that ensured basic assistance and the right to a relatively long stay for Poles. It will strongly influence the demographic, economic and political situation of the Union. One may therefore conclude that the actual insufficiency of the urban infrastructure was the result not only of a conscious and rational under-urbanisation strategy, but also of excessive employment in industry.


However, the plans were gglobalizacji brought to completion and were never widespread.

In industrial centres, non-local employees globaliazcji farming families valued their ability to make free choices on the labour market, especially the ease with which they could give up their urban job when there was a lot of work on the farm, and then find employment again.

At the same time, bilateral agreements were signed with numerous countries concerning the export of Polish globalozacji, and recruitment of suitable employees was carried out. These could also include independent professions such as barber, shoemaker, tailor, goldsmith, etc.

Low mobility was particularly visible among the inhabitants of big cities with the population exceedingwhere the proportion reached 76 per cent, while among inhabitants of villages and small towns up to 5 inhabitantsthose who did not move were relatively few in number 33 per cent. Waldinger once again revises the ongoing debate concerning ethnic enclaves. University of Chicago Press.

By industrialisation I mean a fundamental and abrupt change in the economic structure — a transition from a predominantly agricultural economy to one where most of national product is generated by industry. Initially, migrants from cities and highly industrialised areas clearly prevailed in absolute as well as relative termsbut their numbers gradually diminished.

It contributed to the preservation of the semi-traditional peasant sector in agriculture and, as a consequence of industrial growth, to the emergence of peasant-workers on the labour market.